Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) are among the most significant public health problems in the world due to their high resistance to antibiotics.
GNB can send people right into the intensive care unit and lead to high morbidity and mortality due to septic shock.
What causes GNB? A high fat diet causes a change in the GI tract microbial population to one that is dominated by gram negative bacteria (GNB). This is a problem because GNB tend to cause the GI tract to become more more permeable (Leaky Gut Syndrome). Increased permeability enables an increase absorption of the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) coating of molecules that make up the outer membrane of gram negative bacteria. These LPS molecules cause our immune system to overreact, manifesting as chronic inflammation in the body. An overload of LPS molecules can cause septic shock and death.
The Solution? Fiber and Bifidobacteria.
Cani et al. (2007, 2007a, 2008, 2009) demonstrated in their research that adding to the diet soluble fibers such as inulin (e.g., inulin found in the Original Synbiotic) stimulates the growth of Bifidobacteria sp., which cause a reduction in the number of GNB, and a reduction in gut permeability, thereby reducing the levels of LPS systemically and reducing chronic inflammation.
- Cani et al. (2009). Changes in gut microbiota control inflammation in obese mice through a mechanism involving GLP-2 driven improvement of gut permeability. Gut; 58(8): 1091-1103
- Cani et al. (2008). Changes in gut microbiota control metabolic endotoxemia-induced inflammation in high-fat induced obesity and diabetes in mice, Diabetes; 57:1470-8.
- Cani et al. (2007). Metabolic endotoxemia initiates obesity and insulin resistance. Diabetes; 56:1761-72.
- Cani et al. (2007a). Selective increases of Bifidobacteria in gut microflora improve high-fat-diet-induced diabetes in mice through a mechanism associated with endotoxaemia. Diabetologia; 50: 2374-83.
Oliveira, J., & Reygaert, W. C. (2019). Gram negative bacteria. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing.
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Enterobacteriaceae are a heterogeneous group widely dispersed in nature. They account for about 80% of gram-negative isolates with a myriad of disease-causing general/species in humans, including urinary tract infections, pneumonia, diarrhea, meningitis, sepsis, endotoxic shock, and many others. The general/species that frequently affect humans are Escherichia, Proteus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Yersinia, Shigella, and Salmonella among others (Oliveira, J., and Reygaert, W.C., 2019).